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What All the words a person knows and uses.  People have four types of vocabulary: listening, speaking, reading, and writing.  Listening and reading vocabularies are receptive whereas speaking and writing vocabularies are expressive.
Why Vocabulary is the key to reading comprehension. Readers cannot understand what they are reading without knowing what most of the words mean. Vocabulary instruction provides students with an understanding of the meaning and use of words so that they can comprehend what they are reading and communicate effectively with others. As children learn to read more advanced texts, they must learn the meaning of new words that are not part of oral vocabulary.
How Vocabulary is learned incidentally through exposure to oral language as well as through wide reading.  It is also acquired through explicit instruction in word meanings  and word learning strategies.  According to Michael Graves (Reading Rockets, 2000), an effective vocabulary program must include:
-wide or extensive independent reading to expand word knowledge
-instruction in specific words to enhance comprehension of texts containing those words
-instruction in independent word-learning strategies
-word consciousness and word-play activities to motivate and enhance learning.
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Six Goals of an Ideal Vocabulary Curriculum
Classroom Strategies Vocabulary Strategies and WHEN to use them
Rich Oral Language Experiences Teacher Read Aloud
Strategies for teaching vocabulary through read aloud
Explicit vocabulary instruction example
Text Talk lessons
Word Consciousness
Having a word conscious classroom
Teaching sophisticated words through modeling
Specific Word Instruction Choosing words to teach
Shades of meaning example lesson
Teaching multiple meaning words

Classroom ideas for multiple meaning words
Content (domain specific) vocabulary - Marzano List
Semantic Mapping
Frayer Model
Word Maps
Semantic (shades of meaning) Gradients

Journeys Vocabulary Cards (can be found on Think Central in the gateway under resources)
Word-Learning Strategies Contextual Analysis
Context clues strategy guide
Morphemic Analysis
3rd Grade Greek/Latin Roots & Definitions
4th Grade Greek/Latin Roots & Definitions
5th Grade Greek/Latin Roots & Definitions
6th Grade Greek/Latin Roots & Definitions

Common roots and affixes
Common content area roots and affixes
Three layers of the English language
Morphemic Analysis (roots, suffixes, prefixes, semantic mapping, scope and sequence)
Cognate Analysis
Using cognate analysis
Dictionary Use
Dictionary teaching guide
Online dictionary tool
Online thesaurus tool
CLOZE Procedure
Journeys weekly assessment (can be found on Mastery Connect in the ELA curriculum map)
Journeys Intervention Tool Kit Materials
Grades 1-3
Journeys Intervention Tool Kit Materials
Grades 4-6
Vocabulary Lessons Stage 1
Vocabulary Lessons Stage 2
Vocabulary Lessons Stage 3
Vocabulary Lessons (teacher)
Stories & Organizers (student)
Vocabulary Assessments

Any resource underneath "instruct" above can be used for intervention.

Extensions Teachers can use above grade-level text to challenge students' reading vocabulary.